BLACKHOLES,NEUTRONSTARS GRAVITYELECTROMAG MODEL


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Message 835425 - Posted: 29 Nov 2008, 13:12:26 UTC
Last modified: 29 Nov 2008, 13:43:39 UTC

If you read my electromaganetism model heres further proof and explanations on the blackhole,supernova,neutronstar cycle critism is needed so we can polish what i write here

Remember i said that all atoms have a natural resonance equilibrium and influence other atoms with resultant force seen as gravity and that resonance away caused by perpendicular force is felt as electromagentic waves whose frequency depends on the amount of deviation of from resonance plane in 90 degrees


if thats true the sharp of our atom will be somthing like an arrow pointing towards a dot (picture)

so lets begin
a) my imagination of what happensinside a blackhole is as it is known the are very dense that means if you picture our atom its actually compressed with in the black hole to the point were our electron is denied space for resonance its frozen but still point in the equilibrium positon of resonance. the overall effect of this state on sorrounding space is it tends to strip of electrons and other particles from any approaching atoms ,secondly it sets an inter galactic drift of atoms or matter increasing its mass over time.
b) At a certain time the mass is to much for the frozen atoms with in it and so our atom can no longer
with stand the force on its structure and has to pevent the nucleus from being destroyed that it does something amazing and thats the direction of resonance flips 180 degrees out wards and since this is not acceptable a massive repulsive force comes into play as atoms are ejected explosion on cosmic scale. supernova

c) things get even better as we follow our atom ,it accelerates outwards till it attains the velocity of light at which point the electron is stretch beyond 90 degrees in perpendicular plain and are ripped of the atoms making the nucleus unstable which is ripped apart and now the scenario is no atoms but neutrons electrons and protons

d)what happens next will supprise you again inside the blackhole that has just expoded space has been stretch to the point that it begins to collapse and these has an effect on the heavier neutrons since the mass difference of neutrons ,electrons ,protons is not the same thus the neutrons left behind still with in reach of the collapsing black hole begin there jouney back into what was our original black hole.these leds to creation of neutron stars which are highly unstable and begin the inward movement of atoms with in its area of reach back into the neutron stars which with time again acquire a mass that will prevent resonance of electrons turning into black holes again

e)the outward movement of the remaining neutrons electrons and protons begins to slow down and when velocity of less than light is achieved the have to attain a stable form creating atoms again and the speed difference in drop of velocity creates different atoms i.e elements of periodic table

questions 1)is energy created during the 180 degree flip of direction of resonance coz if it is then the universe is gaining mass

I REST MY CASE
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Message 836456 - Posted: 2 Dec 2008, 13:56:33 UTC - in response to Message 835425.
Last modified: 2 Dec 2008, 14:00:55 UTC

one thing i didnt explain below is how mass or atom that is traveling at speed of
light converts into elementary particles electrons,neutrons and protons in this explanationi will use an apple as the nucleus,a pencil as the axis and direction of resonance and water as space just so everyone understands

if you pierced your apple with your pencil sharpened at on end that pretty gives you your atom with natural axis sharp end of your pencil represents direction of resonance of your atom place it in water bucket and it floats with lower end submerged so thats the way our atom appears in space .now your can apply slight pressure on your axis in perpendicular direction thats how we get the different frequencies of our electromagetic waves now the frequency of light is at the extreme end i.e pencil almost touching water surface 88 degrees away from original position.

what happens when matter or atom is traveling in space is similar the electrons are stretch as the atom picks speed in a 90 degrees plane till it reaches about
88-89 degrees the speed of light ,now if you use our crude model and exert more pressure on pencil axis the apple turns 180 degrees in space with the sharp end pointing up translation it has changed it direction of resonace.

now for a atom to change its direction of resonance 180 degrees in flight is translated going backward but it has inertia thus when you sum it all up its like hiting a rock total analiation guranted.

so for those who want to more faster than light how shall we get around that?
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Message 836654 - Posted: 3 Dec 2008, 7:13:44 UTC - in response to Message 836456.
Last modified: 3 Dec 2008, 7:17:47 UTC

There is a way to travel in space and time with out exceeding the speed of light and the most interesting thing is it can be done here on earth ,i looked at
all the possibilities of what we can do to the electron here are some of them

1) we could somehow increase the speed of resonance of electrons in its natural direction of resonance effect the atoms should in theory become heavier,

2)we could vary the speed of resonance of electron in its natural direction of resonance effect produce gravitational waves

3)we could some how safely reverse the direction of resonance of an electron
by 180 degrees effect use gravity to lift of planets without need for rockets.

4)we could hold the direction of resonance in a 180 degree plane along the fabric of space effect bend space up or down and use that effect to get to other far away place with out exceeding speed of light.

5)we could find a way to spin the direction of resonance in a 360 degrees plain along the fabric of space
effect a theoratical worm hole and use it for travel.


this model solves alot of things mankind has always wanted but there is a lot to do namely
a)first figure if it has any place mathematically in qunatum dynamics hope i am right it should fit perfectly i am not a physist or mathimatian

b)find what the natural direction of resonance is here on earth .

c)what is the value of that natural resonance of an electron and how can we alter it.

d)what angles are assigned to different frequncies of electromagnetic waves especially what angle is assigned for light.

e)what are our safe values

f)what forces are able to have an effect on the electron in its natural direction of resonance and yet not affect the angle of resonance

then we can manipulate this for space travel.
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Message 836724 - Posted: 3 Dec 2008, 15:16:23 UTC - in response to Message 836654.

Dark matter can be perfectly explained by this model gravity electromagnetic link model theoretically it can be created here on earth .

dark matter is ordinary matter whose electron has direction of resonance but cant
have freedom in the 90 degrees plain. in the universe this is observed in places
of huge gravity but dark matter can also be create with huge magnetic force

the best way to see dark matter is to built a new telescope that would sense the direction of resonance of electrons you should see alot clearly.
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Message 836729 - Posted: 3 Dec 2008, 16:35:21 UTC - in response to Message 836724.

There is anther phenomeno of the universe that astronomers might or might have not seen yet or the have seen and misunderstood i believe its there we just have to look for it and this is magnetic lensing how would that appear you think strange isnt it
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Message 836908 - Posted: 4 Dec 2008, 10:08:03 UTC - in response to Message 836729.
Last modified: 4 Dec 2008, 10:18:40 UTC

Magnetic lensening is possible its even occurring now as your reading this ,a nation that properly harness that phenomena is invincable on the battle field for they will appear everywhere and no were if need be .magnetic lensing in the universe is a matter of fact since magnets occur naturally and its a massive tool of deception of sight. in the universe it can occur in various combinations

1)as a single body
2)as space between two bodies .
3)as space between multiple bodies.

how it appears that i believe depends on several factors.

1)if the magnetic field is uniform

2)if the magnetic field is non uniform

3)if the magnetic field is interacting with other significant forces.

but basically the overall effect is to cause a negative or positive refractive index and the effects are multiple its a science of its own {what happens when light seen from a distance hits a magnetic boundary }.

magnetic lens has application here on earth on the battle field or may be its already being used and we are not aware ,in wars fought on other worlds or it may even be used against against us in event of an alien attack or its one of the reasons why aliens cant be detected physically or it may be the reason why we cant pick there signals the possiblities are endless but thats because our scientist have been sleeping alot .

To create magnetic lensing matreals we should go back and interpret what a magnetic matreal is

and thats a matreal whose electron has its plane of resonance offset by a given value x and is fixed how it occurs is a science of its on but i can tell you for sure that that value is variable, vary it and you should have all kinds of illusions .make suits out of it and you should be appear different.

we have had statements that the universe is expanding faster than light i just hope that those values are not dependantant on light or radio waves because one of the ways a magnetic lens appears is a mirror and we all know that objects seen in a mirror are faster i will not go in to detail how fast but the are.

the universe is surely a strange place but dont always believe what you see.
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Message 837181 - Posted: 5 Dec 2008, 13:49:36 UTC - in response to Message 836908.

einstein described gravity beautifully in his equations of gravity something that goes like special relativity those equations locked the human mind forever people stopped asking what really causes gravity , einstein seems to have locked our minds and died with the keys but what einstein really described was what you would see or expect he didnt go in to the physical property of matter so for us to progress we better get that key and start thinking again and let relativity stay relativity were it applies .
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Message 837191 - Posted: 5 Dec 2008, 14:18:22 UTC - in response to Message 837181.

The gravity electron magnetism model explains what DARK ENERGY is with easy this

form of energy had to be smuggled in to various astronomical equations because the would not give correct results ,thats really unfair .

but if you look at the gravity electromagnetism model you will under stand that its actually gravity acting backwards on its self i.e the the general direction of resonance of electrons in one galaxy is opposite to that in the other so it seems that their is no thing like dark energy we should recalculate if this fits in i would think it does .
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Message 837669 - Posted: 7 Dec 2008, 7:24:34 UTC - in response to Message 837191.
Last modified: 7 Dec 2008, 7:31:17 UTC

I have posted many threads not to error any one but just to try and get new ideas
that can propel us in this centuary some will come to pass others will not but here is my final one and that is how we can utilize the energy of our galaxy.

To properly use the energy of our galaxy we must learn on thing and thats how all
matter is made and destroyed the current standing is that matter is made by

nuclear fusion in the depths of the hot stars which later explode and spill that matter but there is a problem with that the heat in the stars is not uniform and there is no geometric pattern but elements in the periodic table have a geometric progression so lets just for seek of future study anther possibility.


lets look and the supernova explosion there is always a dark ring are around it after agiven time and distance there appears gas ring and after given time and distance there appears matter.

i believe thats were materials are created which we can apply here on earth and in other planets we can create anything we need from basic particles neutrons,protons ,electrons i.e use sand on mars to make oxygen,and all that we need but first how do we split any matter into those particles look at the supernova for an answer

matter from it is sent out at one tenths speed of light thats what they say but
i believe it actually later attains speed of light hence the dark halo around it and matter breaks up into neutrons ,electrons and protons to recombine later in progression as particles lose speed possibly due to backward action of collapsing space inthe supernova

here on earth we can in future find a way to actually accelerated unwanted matreals to that speed and recombine the particles in a desired specification by deccelerating them and that is us making oxygen on mass ,making all kinds of metals that should be our future there is no way around it.
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Message 838457 - Posted: 10 Dec 2008, 11:13:38 UTC
Last modified: 10 Dec 2008, 11:15:50 UTC

Illuminating a black hole (Los Angeles Times):
American and European researchers put together the most thorough look yet of the mass at the heart of the Milky Way.


By John Johnson Jr.
10:31 PM PST, December 9, 2008
After 16 years of research, teams of American and European scientists have compiled the most complete portrait of the gigantic black hole at the center of the Milky Way, plotting its gravity-bending mass as being equivalent to a staggering 4 million suns.

The researchers from Germany and UCLA also pinpoint the distance to the center of the galaxy at 27,000 light-years.

Neither figure differs markedly from previous estimates of the black hole's size and distance, but it is the most conclusive proof to date that our galaxy of billions of stars is indeed centered on an object of such tremendous power that it gobbles all light and matter that dares to venture into its neighborhood.
Reinhard Genzel, leader of the European team based at the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics in Garching, Germany, said researchers had the best evidence yet that "supermassive black holes really do exist."
Andrea Ghez, leader of the UCLA Galactic Center Group, which has been engaged in what Ghez called a "useful rivalry" with the Europeans, said the results represented a more fully developed understanding of the galaxy's center than the guesses of the past.
"We had the luxury of ignorance. It's like we went from a teenager to an adult," she said.

Videoclip---->ESO.ORG

Both research papers are scheduled to be published in upcoming issues of the Astrophysical Journal.

Since direct observation of a black hole is impossible, the two studies focused on a set of stars that orbit near the black hole.

The European team began its research in 1992 with the New Technology Telescope in La Silla, Chile, eventually shifting to the Very Large Telescope at the same site.

Ghez said her team has been using the giant Keck telescope in Hawaii.

By analyzing the velocity and size of the stars' orbits, the researchers were able to calculate the mass of the black hole and its distance.

Two distinct populations of stars reside in the heart of the galaxy. The stars in the innermost region, said Stefan Gillessen, the author of the European study, are in random orbits "like a swarm of bees."

Farther out, a group of stars orbit in a more orderly, disc-like pattern. Both teams have observed one star, known as S-02, long enough to see it make one complete revolution around the black hole.

Johnson is a Times staff writer.
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Message 842591 - Posted: 20 Dec 2008, 17:21:28 UTC - in response to Message 838457.



Measuring the Mysterious ‘Dark’ Force

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By DENNIS OVERBYE
Published: December 16, 2008

Measurements of the lack of growth of galaxy clusters over the last five billion years put astronomers one step closer, they say, toward narrowing the possible explanations of dark energy, the mysterious force that is speeding up the universe

Physicists denote the virulence of dark energy by a number called w, the equation of state. From the stifling of cluster growth, Dr. Alexey Vikhlinin’s multinational team derived a value of w of about minus 1.14, plus or minus 0.21. That is within shooting range of the magic value for the cosmological constant of minus 1.

The constraints on dark energy tighten considerably when the cluster measurements are combined with the supernova measurements and others, including observations of the cosmic microwaves left over from the Big Bang, in which the seeds of cosmic structures like galaxy clusters can be seen, yielding a w of minus 0.991, plus or minus .045.

That looks like an improvement of a factor of 2 on the uncertainty charts that dark energy specialists show to one another in meetings and papers, but critics caution that combining disparate types of measurements can result in an artificially small error that masks underlying uncertainties. Astronomers, for example, still do not have a good theory to explain how their standard candles, supernovas, explode, and theories of cluster growth depend on assumptions about the nature of the dark matter in the universe and the nature of the original fluctuations that give birth to them.

Even the improved error bars still leave a lot of wiggle room for other theories of dark energy, and some astronomers worry that the measurements even from the upcoming dark energy satellite will never get accurate enough to prove or disprove the cosmological constant.

Paul Steinhardt of Princeton University pointed out that the uncertainties in the cluster results are larger if you consider the possibility that w could vary with cosmic time, “which is what you should do if you are trying to test the idea that the dark energy is not a cosmological constant,” he said in an e-mail message.

But the fact that the answer from clusters came out so close to the cosmological constant is a vote of confidence for Einstein’s general relativity, said William Forman of Harvard, a member of Dr. Vikhlinin’s team. “This is a test that general relativity could have failed,” he said.

Indeed, several theorists said the future now looked dim for alternative theories of gravity, in particular a variant from string theory, which incorporates extra dimensions and which predicts enhanced growth of structures like galaxy clusters. David Spergel, a theorist at Princeton University, said that although quantitative tests had not yet been done with the new data, “I suspect that it rules out those models.”

Dr. Vikhlinin lamented that there were not yet very many such theories to knock down yet, but there were sure to be more on the table soon. “The field has just started, I think he said.

Copyright 2008 The New York Times Company

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Message 842599 - Posted: 20 Dec 2008, 17:50:54 UTC - in response to Message 842591.



The Boston Globe
'Dark energy' stunts galaxy growth, astrophysicists find
Causes universe to expand at ever-faster rate
By Carolyn Y. Johnson
Globe Staff / December 17,

Astrophysicists shed light yesterday on one of the deepest mysteries in science, the perplexing "dark energy" that makes up nearly three-quarters of our universe.

Harvard-Smithsonian researchers announced that they have measured the effects of dark energy, a mysterious antigravity force, documenting how it stunts the growth of galaxy clusters as it causes the universe to expand at an ever-faster rate.

"This may well be called the arrested development of the universe," said Alexey Vikhlinin, an astrophysicist at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge who led the work.

While the discovery has no effect on life on earth, at least not anytime soon, it provides a missing piece of the puzzle in our understanding of the universe, building on key discoveries from a decade ago.

"It's been 10 years since we discovered the universe is speeding up and not slowing down, and even those of us who are professional cosmologists have yet to get our heads around that," said Michael S. Turner, an astrophysicist at the University of Chicago.

"This is a big, big mystery. I call it the most profound mystery in science," said Turner, who coined the term "dark energy." The finding announced yesterday, he said, "puts a new arrow in our quiver" in trying to understand that "weird stuff out there."

Astrophysicists from the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics used NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory to measure the masses of clusters of galaxies. Those clusters depend on gravity to grow, pulling in matter from millions of light-years away. But around five billion years ago, the growth of those clusters slowed.

Such observations, while they do little to illuminate the nature of dark energy itself, are critical, researchers said, because they back up the previous results.

"If they had found something different, we'd all be wringing our hands and wondering if there is a big problem," said astronomer Robert Kirshner of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, who was a member of one of the two teams of scientists that rocked the cosmological world 10 years ago with their discovery that the university was expanding faster and faster. "This shows our first inklings were more or less right."

The significance of understanding dark energy may not be evident in a world where most people think of the universe as the things they can see. But it makes up 72 percent of the universe, whereas normal matter makes up less than 5 percent. More important, its antigravity effects have the power to eventually shape the universe's destiny.

"It's much more abundant and important to the universe's evolution than the atoms that make us up," said David Spergel , an astrophysicist at Princeton University.

Another notable benefit of this week's discovery is that it leaves Albert Einstein's theories intact.

To his theory of general relativity, Einstein added a fudge factor called the cosmological constant. While Einstein later considered this a mistake, the cosmological constant has regained popularity today as a leading explanation for dark energy.

Still, 13 billion years since the Big Bang, there are more questions than answers.

"We don't know what ideas are right," said Spergel. "This is kind of a brave new world."

Carolyn Y. Johnson can be reached at cjohnson@globe.com
© Copyright 2008 Globe Newspaper Company.

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Message 848158 - Posted: 2 Jan 2009, 12:57:25 UTC - in response to Message 842599.
Last modified: 2 Jan 2009, 13:25:16 UTC

This an abstract about Cosmological constraints on unifying Dark Fluid models

Universit´e de Lyon, Lyon, F-69000, France ; Universit´e Lyon 1, Villeurbanne, F-69622, France ; Centre de
Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon, Observatoire de Lyon, 9 avenue Charles Andr´e, Saint-Genis Laval cedex,
F-69561, France ; CNRS, UMR 5574 ; Ecole Normale Sup´erieure de Lyon, Lyon, France

WARNING;its highly technical, only the intro and conclusions are below if your are interested in the derivations vist link below.


http://www.bentham-open.org/pages/gen.php?file=27TOAAJ.pdf


1 Introduction
In the standard model of cosmology, the total energy density of the Universe is dominated today by the densities
of two components: the first one, called “dark matter”, is generally modeled as a system of collisionless particles
(“cold dark matter”) and consequently has an attractive gravitational effect like usual matter. The second one,
generally refereed as “dark energy” or “cosmological constant” can be considered as a vacuum energy with a
negative pressure, which seems constant today. The real nature of these two components remains unknown,
and the proposed solutions to these problems are presently faced to numbers of difficulties.
The general approach to try to identify these two distinct components is to find constraints to better understand
their behaviors. The usual method to find the best values of the different parameters of the model is to predict
observations and to adjust the parameters to improve the accuracy of the predictions. In this paper, I consider
the so-called dark fluid model [1], in which the dark matter and the dark energy are in fact different aspects of a
same dark fluid. For simplicity reasons, it is considered in the following that this fluid is perfect, i.e. the entropy
variations and the shear stress can be ignored. I will examine data from the latest observations of supernovæ of
type Ia, cosmic microwave background (CMB), large scale structures, and the theoretical predictions from bigbang
nucleosynthesis (BBN), and I will derive constraints on the dark fluid parameters. I will then describe the
necessary behavior of a dark fluid at local scales. In a last paragraph, I will discuss the scalar field dark fluid
model

Conclusion and Perspectives
Astrophysical and cosmological observations are usually considered in terms of dark matter and dark energy.
As we showed here, they can also be interpreted differently, in terms of unifying dark fluids, which could advantageously
replace models containing two dark components. In this article, we have derived general constraints
on such models in light of recent cosmological data, and we have considered the specific example of scalar field
dark fluids and showed that they can be in agreement with the obtained constraints.
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Message 848199 - Posted: 2 Jan 2009, 14:30:21 UTC

All this is dark magic to me.
Tullio
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Message 848204 - Posted: 2 Jan 2009, 14:38:09 UTC - in response to Message 848199.

I completely agree ,to me too.
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Message 848560 - Posted: 3 Jan 2009, 6:35:08 UTC - in response to Message 848158.


The galaxy cluster Cl 0024+17 (ZwCl0024+1652) as seen by Hubble’s Advanced Camera for Surveys. Credit: NASA, ESA, M.J. Jee and H. Ford (Johns Hopkins University)

Written by Nancy Atkinson

The first stars to light the early universe may have been powered by dark matter, according to a new study. Researchers from the University of Michagan, Ann Arbor call these very first stars "Dark Stars," and propose that dark matter heating provided the energy for these stars instead of fusion. The researchers propose that with a high concentration of dark matter in the early Universe, the theoretical particles called Weakly Interacting Massive Particles(WIMPs), collected inside the first stars and annihilated themselves to produce a heat source to power the stars. "We studied the behavior of WIMPs in the first stars," said Katherine Freese and her team in their paper, "and found that they can radically alter the stellar evolution. The annihilation products of the dark matter inside the star can be trapped and deposit enough energy to heat the star and prevent it from further collapse."

The philosophy behind this research is that 95% of the mass in galaxies and clusters of galaxies is in the form of an unknown type matter, dark matter. The researchers say, "The first stars to form in the universe are a natural place to look for significant amounts of dark matter annihilation, because they form at the right place and the right time. They form at high redshifts, when the universe was still substantially denser than it is today, and at the high density centers of dark matter haloes."

The concentration of dark matter at that time would have been extremely high meaning that any ordinary stars would naturally contain large amounts of dark matter.

Dark stars would have been driven by the annihilation of dark matter particles releasing heat but only in stars larger than 400 solar masses. That turns out to be quite feasible since stars containing smaller amounts of dark matter would naturally grow as they swept up dark matter from nearby space.

The stars continued, and may still continue to be powered by dark matter annihilation as long as there is dark matter for fuel. When the dark matter runs out, they simply collapse to form black holes.

If they exist, Dark Stars should be able to be detected with future telescopes, and if found, would enable the study of WIMPs, and therefore be able to prove the existence of dark matter
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Message 848713 - Posted: 3 Jan 2009, 15:07:07 UTC - in response to Message 848560.

What Can Swiss Cheese Teach us About Dark Energy?
12.22.08


About 10 years ago, scientists reached the astonishing conclusion that our universe is accelerating apart at ever-increasing speeds, stretching space and time itself like melted cheese. The force that's pushing the universe apart is still a mystery, which is precisely why it was dubbed "dark energy."

But is dark energy really real? Is our universe really accelerating? These questions hang around in the mind of Ali Vanderveld, a post-doctoral cosmologist at JPL. Vanderveld and her colleagues recently published a paper in the journal Physical Review looking at how giant holes in our "Swiss-cheese-like" universe might make space look as if it's accelerating when it's really not. They concluded these holes, or voids, are not sufficient to explain away dark energy; nevertheless, Vanderveld says it's important to continue to question fundamental traits of the very space we live in.

"Sometimes we take dark energy for granted," said Vanderveld. "But there are other theories that could explain why the universe appears to be moving apart at faster and faster speeds."

Why do scientists think the universe is accelerating? A large part of the evidence comes from observations taken over the last decade or so of very distant, colossal star explosions called supernovae. JPL's Wide-Field and Planetary Camera 2 on NASA's Hubble Space Telescope contributed to this groundbreaking research. Astronomers had already figured out that space, since its inception about 13.7 billion years ago in a tremendous "Big Bang" explosion, is expanding. But they didn't know if this expansion was happening at a constant rate, and even speculated that it could be slowing down. By examining distant supernovae billions of light-years away, scientists could get a look at how the expansion of space behaves over time.

The results were baffling. The more distant supernovae were dimmer than predicted, which would suggest they are farther away than previously believed. If they are farther away, then this means the space between us and the supernovae is expanding at ever-increasing speeds. Additional research has since pointed to an accelerating universe.

A group of researchers from Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, Ill., recently invoked what's called the Swiss-cheese model of the universe to explain why these supernovae might appear to be moving faster away from us than they really are. The universe is made up of lumps of matter interspersed with giant holes, or voids, somewhat like Swiss cheese. In fact, last year, astronomers at the University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, reported finding the king of all known voids, spanning one billion light-years. In other words, it would take light -- which holds the title for fastest stuff in the universe -- one billion years to go from one side of the void to the other!

The researchers at Fermi said these voids might lie between us and the supernovae being observed, acting like concave lenses to make the objects appear dimmer and farther than they really are. If so, then the supernova might not be accelerating away from us after all. Their theory claimed to provide a way in which dark energy might go poof.

Vanderveld and her colleagues at Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y., looked more closely at this theory and found a few "holes." The group at Fermi had assumed a bunch of voids would line up between us and the supernovae, but Vanderveld's group said, in reality, the voids would be distributed more randomly -- again like Swiss cheese. With this random distribution, the voids are not enough to explain away dark energy.

"The lumpiness of the universe could still be tricking us into thinking it's accelerating," said Vanderveld. "But we did not find this to be the case with our best, current models of the universe."

There is, however, one other freakish possibility that could mean a void is creating the illusion of an accelerating universe. If our solar system just happened to sit in the middle of a void, then that void would distort our observations. Said Vanderveld, "It's really hard to tell if we're in a void, but for the most part this possibility has been ruled out."


Media contacts: Whitney Clavin 818-354-4673
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.
whitney.clavin@jpl.nasa.gov
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Message 849704 - Posted: 5 Jan 2009, 16:01:38 UTC

Got a headache reading, so I had to stop reading the beginning few posts due to the amount of grammatical errors, sorry.
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HAY! Watch this!
LLLLEEEEEERRRROOOOOYYYYY!
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Message 849751 - Posted: 5 Jan 2009, 17:41:47 UTC - in response to Message 849704.

Sorry about that......
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Message 850528 - Posted: 7 Jan 2009, 18:49:42 UTC

BLACK HOLES CAME BEFORE GAXALIES

Most if not all galaxies, including our own the Milky Way, are believed to have massive black holes at their cores.

But did the black holes come first, helping to build galaxies by pulling material towards them, or did they arise in the centre of already formed galaxies?

This question has long preoccupied scientists but new research focusing on the first billion years of the universe's history, indicates the former is most likely to be true.

"It looks like the black holes came first," said Dr Chris Carilli, from the US National Radio Astronomy Observatory, who took part in the study. "The evidence is piling up."

Earlier studies had revealed an intriguing link between the masses of black holes and the central "bulges" of stars and gas in galaxies.

Generally, the black hole's mass was seen to be about 1,000th that of the mass of the surrounding galactic bulge.

This indicated an "interactive relationship" between the black hole and the bulge. What was not clear was whether one grew before the other, or whether they grew together.

New radio telescope observations reaching back almost to the birth of the first galaxies may now have answered that question.

Radio waves received from these galaxies and travelling at the speed of light were emitted only about a billion years after the Big Bang which started the universe.

These young distant galaxies had much larger black holes in relation to their bulge mass than older and closer galaxies.

"The implication is that the black holes started growing first," said Dr Fabian Walter, another of the scientists from the Max-Planck Institute for Radioastronomy in Germany.

The findings were presented at the American Astronomical Society's annual meeting in Long Beach, California.

The next challenge is to work out how the black hole and the bulge affect each other's growth, said the astronomers.

Powerful new telescopes now under construction will help to unravel the mystery, said Dr Carilli.

He added: "To understand how the universe got to be the way it is today, we must understand how the first stars and galaxies were formed when the universe was young.

"With the new observatories we'll have in the next few years, we'll have the opportunity to learn important details from the era when the universe was only a toddler compared to today's adult.
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We choose to go to the moon and to do other things, we choose to go to the moon not because its easy but because its hard. kennedy

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